The IVF procedure

In vitroLatin for "in glass" for example in a test tube, as opposed to processes taking place inside the body. fertilizationFusion of an egg and a spermatozoon, fertilization occurs naturally in the fallopian tubes. (IVFIVF or In Vitro Fertilization: Fertilization outside of the body, for which one induces with gonadotrophins the development of several ovarian follicles. The oocytes (eggs) arrive at maturity and are taken from the ovary by surgical puncture and mixed 4-6 hours later with the sperm of the partner (or ICSI is performed to introduce one spermatozoa in each oocyte). To allow cell division, the fertilized eggs are kept from 2 to 6 days in a protected environment (incubator). The embryos are then transferred into the uterus of the patient for implantation.) and embryoTerm designating the early stages of development from conception to the eighth week of pregnancy. From the first cell division on, the two-cell stage, one uses the term embryo. transfer is a fertility treatment which consists of : hormonal stimulationOvarian stimulation. Medical treatment designed to stimulate the ovaries, the follicular growth and development. This treatment usually allows several oocytes to become mature. of the ovariesTwo glands the size of a plum (3-5 cm), located on either side of the uterus, where the eggs are located. The ovaries produce the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone., followed by emptying each ovarian follicleFluid-filled sac in the ovary containing and nourishing the egg during its maturation. During ovulation, the follicle bursts and releases the egg. by puncturing it with a medical hollow needle (oocyteA female reproductive cell. At birth, the ovaries contain 1 to 2 million oocytes. At puberty, there are no more than 400'000 to 500'000 left. Only 400 to 500 will reach maturity and ovulation at a rate of  one per month until menopause. All the others will finally degenerate at various stages of development. pick-up), isolating the cumulus-oocyteA female reproductive cell. At birth, the ovaries contain 1 to 2 million oocytes. At puberty, there are no more than 400'000 to 500'000 left. Only 400 to 500 will reach maturity and ovulation at a rate of  one per month until menopause. All the others will finally degenerate at various stages of development. complexes obtained and putting them in the presence of the partner's spermEjaculated spermatozoa and secretions during the male orgasm.. After an incubation of 16-20 h, the zygotes (impregnated oocytes) are identified. From these, 1-12 zygotes are cultured for a few days in order to obtain embryos which will be transferred in utero.The embryos that are not immediately transferred will be frozen (cryopreserved).

Originally developed to treat tubal infertilityInfertility due to the obstruction or dysfunction of the fallopian tubes. (tubal occlusion), medical indications for IVFIVF or In Vitro Fertilization: Fertilization outside of the body, for which one induces with gonadotrophins the development of several ovarian follicles. The oocytes (eggs) arrive at maturity and are taken from the ovary by surgical puncture and mixed 4-6 hours later with the sperm of the partner (or ICSI is performed to introduce one spermatozoa in each oocyte). To allow cell division, the fertilized eggs are kept from 2 to 6 days in a protected environment (incubator). The embryos are then transferred into the uterus of the patient for implantation. have progressively been extended (endometriosisGynecological problem where one finds some tissue of the endometrium (uterine lining) outside  the uterus either on the fallopian tubes, ovaries or in the abdominal cavity. Endometriosis can be the cause of painful periods and is also a factor infertility., unspecified male infertilityDifficulty for a man or a woman to procreate as a result of a functional disorder or an organic lesion of the reproductive system, generally acknowledged after one year of regular, unprotected sexual relations. ...). It is now often associated with the intracytoplasmic spermEjaculated spermatozoa and secretions during the male orgasm. injection (ICSIFrom English "Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection." Assisted fertilization by microscope, where a single sperm is injected directly into the oocyte. ICSI is indicated in cases of male fertility problems, so if there are only very few normal sperm in the sperm or the fertilization capacity of sperm is extremely small.) technique (see under "fertilizationFusion of an egg and a spermatozoon, fertilization occurs naturally in the fallopian tubes." in left column) or microsurgical collection of spermEjaculated spermatozoa and secretions during the male orgasm. from the epididymis (MESAFrom English "Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration." Microsurgical aspiration of sperm directly into the epididymis (a long tubular and tortuous structure in which spermatozoa are getting mature and are stored). Sperm retrieved are used for fertilization by intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI).) or testis (TESE"Testicular sperm extraction". Microsurgical technique to extract sperm directly from a testicular biopsy. The sperm obtained from testicular tissue are used for fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). TESE is applied in cases where the epididymis does not store sperm, or is absent (see also ICSI and MESA).).

Medical indications for conventional IVF or IVF -ICSI: tubal infertilityInfertility due to the obstruction or dysfunction of the fallopian tubes., infertilityDifficulty for a man or a woman to procreate as a result of a functional disorder or an organic lesion of the reproductive system, generally acknowledged after one year of regular, unprotected sexual relations. of male origin, unexplained infertilityDifficulty for a man or a woman to procreate as a result of a functional disorder or an organic lesion of the reproductive system, generally acknowledged after one year of regular, unprotected sexual relations..

An IVF or IVF-ICSI cycle proceeds through several steps:

 

You can find a more detailled description and images of each step by selecting it in the column to the left of the screen.

A list of treatment costs can be found here. 

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